russian sage zone 4

December 2, 2020 in Uncategorized

You can give plants a hard prune at this point, cutting plants to 6 to 12 inches tall, if you don’t want to see stems all winter long. Often what seems like the flowers on Russian sage are actually the calyx,a tube that protects the flowers from damage before they bloom. Mike Heger of Ambergate Gardens, Waconia, Minnesota (zone 4), treats Russian sage like an herbaceous perennial that dies back in winter. You can start Russian sage from seed, but you will need to be patient. Russian Sage. Hardy in Zones 4-9. Although its branches are woody, like a shrub, the top portion of the plant may die back in cold winters. Not only is it the perfect answer for tough, hot dry sites, it needs little water to maintain its fresh good looks. He was governor of Orenburg, a Russian city 1,500 miles northwest of the plant's native region. This woody-stemmed sub-shrub grows up to 5 feet high and 4 feet wide. Germination can take up to four months. The flowers start off subdued and gain brilliance as they open, then gradually fade away again. In coldest climates, leave stems standing in winter to trap snow for a deeper mulch. 'Blue Spire' has deep purple flowers and larger panicles. The back layer of this vignette is built with hollyhock, butterfly bush, and Russian sage. Gardeners in all climates should prune Russian sage plants back to about 6-8 inches in the spring. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); © 1972 - 2020 National Gardening Association, Times are presented in US Central Standard Time, Today's site banner is by lauriemorningglory and is called "October Skies". Most plants reach between 3 and 5 feet tall. Easy-going and perfect in schemes from modern to cottage, this variety has been improved so as not flop over in the landscape! Learn more about Monrovia plants and best practices for best possible plant performance. Learning how to grow Russian sage plants is easy, as is Russian sage care. Russian sage is a low-maintenance, drought-tolerant shrub, making it a great choice for xeriscaping. Russian sage needs full sun to bloom well. The long panicles of flowers become increasingly brilliant as they open. The Russian sage can survive year-round in the USDA hardiness zones of 5 through 9. It goes from a hazy, pale blue to a jubilant azure. The flowers form on new wood -- branches that grew during the current season. Cold hardy to nearly -40 ° F, it grows in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 10. The plant is called sage for its relation to the culinary sages. Lavender-blue 'Longin' has stiff upright stems and a more formal appearance than the species. Terms of Service apply. This is an airy plant that makes a great specimen. The process tends to start sometime in July and continue through August. Use it for a large-scale ground cover, as a filler in borders and to separate more dominant colors. They will quickly fill the space. Russian Sage: USDA Zone: 4-9: Plant number: 1.406.050. Although Russian sage is extremely drought tolerant, new transplants will need regular water. In the meantime, you will need to keep the seeds continually moist and warm. Plants usually die within two years, but might reappear from seedlings or root suckers, according to Randy Baldwin, San Marcos Growers, Santa Barbara, California (zone 10). Mature Size of Russian Sage Some varieties of Perovskia have a somewhat weeping form. Grow it in the perennial border, xeriscape garden, and theme gardens such as Mediterranean and Tuscan gardens. 10 Foolproof Perennial Plants for the Northeast U.S. 16 Silver Foliage Plants to Brighten Your Landscape, 10 Great Shrubs With Blue or Lavender Flowers, Best Perennials That Offer Long Bloom Periods, 10 Best Deer-Resistant Shrubs for Landscaping. Newer hybrids are sturdier and remain upright. However, it is an option and a good way to get a lot of inexpensive plants. In warmer regions it may not die back much, if at all, during the winter months. Botanical Name. 23-25" (58-64 cm) Habit. Russian sage, or Perovskia, is a late summer blooming perennial that bursts into flower like a cloud of blue. The aromatic leaves are oblong, deeply cut along the edges. Russian Sage is extremely valuable for its long season of bloom in the summer garden. Use all-purpose. Some shade is okay, but too much makes plants sprawl. Russian sage is usually grown from container plants. A sturdy perennial herb, Russian sage easily survives the mild Northern California climate with proper fall care and light protection against winter chill. Grow Together Code. Perovskia often continues to bloom through September and until a hard frost. The species is native to the steppes of Afghanistan, so might more accurately be known as Afghan sage. Zone 3 Plants: Russian Sage (Perovskia) Description: With its tall wispy wands of lavender or blue flowers and silvery foliage, Russian sage is an important player in summer and fall gardens. Russian sage is both drought and deer resistant These sturdy plants grow 2 to 4 feet tall. You can grow it just about anywhere in the United States, so it's available in garden centers or from mail-order nurseries nationwide. Height is nearly 4 feet. USDA Zone 4 (-30°F) to USDA Zone 9 (20°F). Plant just one of these perennials in your garden, and you’ll see a difference in a single season. Hardy from zones 5-9. It shows off well against most flowers and provides an elegant look to flower borders. Russian sage is another plant which has recently changed its name, from Perovskia atriplicifolia to Salvia yangii, officially putting it in the sage genus. These plants are very easy to grow. Do this just as the lower leaf buds are beginning to open, but before new growth fully starts. You might use an inverted ceramic flower pot, and on top of that add a burlap bag or another fabric cloth. A dwarf form of the popular Russian sage. Russian sage is a woody subshrub. Sun. Minimum Spacing (Inches) 36. Not to be outdone by its flowers, the plant's stems and foliage make a strong statement of their own, perhaps even outstrippi… Mulch to reduce weeds . Russian Sage (Perovskia) has taken the gardening world by storm, rising from obscurity to enormous popularity in the past decade. Monrovia's Russian Sage details and information. Sprays of small, lavender-blue flowers appear continuously from late spring through summer, forming a soft haze above the foliage. Spikes of lavender-blue flowers add a sense of lightness to the garden. While considered hardy in zones 5-9, it struggles where the summers are hot and humid. Width (Inches) 36. My one plant has survived winters where temperatures dropped to -30 for two or three nights in a row for several of these years. Since it is drought tolerant, once it is established, it can handle dry, hot areas well. share link × Copy the following link to share this plant: About. or as a border, for example, between properties. Growth Habit. FREE Shipping on your first order shipped by Amazon. L5491. You can also dry complete stalks of the Russian sage plant for use in dried flower arrangements. I live in central Pennsylvania (zone 5) and my plants die back to the ground, too. This compact British introduction forms a bushy mound of fragrant grey-green leaves, bearing copious spikes of lavender-blue flowers from mid-summer on. Russian sage is actually from Asia, so a common name such as Tibetan sage would have been more appropriate. 2.25. It is recommended you divide plants every 4 - 6 years to rejuvenate them and to cut back on their ability to spread. Many varieties of Russian sage have a somewhat weeping habit. Plant forms a bushy upright clump of greyish leaves that are lacy and fragrant. One striking companion is white-flowered phlox. About russian sages The leaves of this Central Asian native are aromatic when crushed. It is called Russian sage because Perovskia was named for a Russian general, not because it is from that area. Dwarf Russian Sage: USDA Zone: 4-9: Plant number: 1.406.060 (='Lisslitt') Russian Sage is a perennial with an exceptionally long season of interest. Russian sage is one of the most heat and drought-resistant perennials available. Russian Sage (Perovskia, Zones 4 to 9) Big and showy, the purple blooms of Russian sage are butterfly magnets. Height/Spread: 2 to 4 feet tall & wide, depending on variety; newer cultivars grow in the 2-1/2-foot range. Zone 4 (-20 to -30 degrees F) Bloom Color Family. Bloom Time. Shrubby. If you want a more upright plant either choose a variety bred to grow upright. Bloom Time: Early summer to fall . Russian sage plants start blooming slowly, just hinting at their full color. By using The Spruce, you accept our, 14 Best Fall-Blooming Flowers for Your Perennial Garden, 14 Best Landscape Plants With Purple Flowers. Since it blooms on new wood, Russian sage is often treated as a perennial plant. Skip to main content. Email us and one of our perennial experts will get back to you. Flowers are small, light blue to lavender, and arranged in whorls along the stem. 99. Weekly during dry spells . Discover the top 10 purple flowers that attract hummingbirds. Gallon(s) Unit of Measure Quantity. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google The winter of 2003-04 was one of those. Tickseed, blazing stars, and coneflowers serve as mid-height layering plants. The lavender-blue works especially well with whites and yellows and with other gray foliage plants. Mature plants stand 34 feet tall and wide, with graceful, upright, whitish stems holding finely cut, aromatic, gray-green leaves. Because of its easy care and smoky-blue flower spikes, Russian Sage plants are one of the most common perennials featured in drought-resistant landscapes. Lacey Blue Russian Sage. The biggest maintenance requirement of Russian sage is pruning. Feed. Perovski. If you live in the northern reaches of that climate range, you may need to offer potted Russian sage a bit of extra protection during the winter months. Proven Winners - Perovskia atri. 'Filigrin' is a compact variety with deeply cut foliage and bright blue flowers. Soil should be neutral to alkaline. Cut old stems back to the ground once a year in spring before new growth begins. Perovskia also combines well with coreopsis, English lavender, and gloriosa daisy. Cold hardy to nearly -40 °F, it grows in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 10. Upright. Marie Iannotti is an author, photographer, and speaker with 27 years of experience as a Cornell Cooperative Extension Horticulture Educator and Master Gardener, The Spruce uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. 48" tall x 48" wide (cutting propagated). Light Requirements. This bush produces panicles of small, bluish-lavender flowers throughout the summer. Modest amounts of supplemental water are necessary in hot and dry climates. Plants grown in Zone 4 may need some winter protection, but as long as the roots survive, your plants should send out new growth in the spring. Height. In the case of the Russian sage, the calyx is covered in coar… 'Denim'n Lace' (Russian Sage) Perennial, blue flowers, 1 - Size Container. Use Russian Sage in the Landscape as solitary plant clumps . They will start off growing tall and bend over under the weight of the flowers. Lavender. Russian sage is a durable plant suitable for growing in USDA plant hardiness zones 5 through 9, but plants in containers are less cold hardy. We provide creative gardeners with Russian Sage, Perovskia and the highest quality perennials for the confidence they need to succeed. Amazon.com: Russian Sage Plant. Full sun (6+ hours direct sun) Cold Hardiness. Its long blooming period is valued by those who seek a flower bed that remains in bloom throughout the growing season. Depending upon your climate, flowering begins in late spring or midsummer. There are, however, still many Russian sage uses. 'Blue Spires' Russian Sage, a European cultivar, is a vigorous, well-shaped grower with attractive dark-blue flower spikes. Unit of Measure. They can become quite aggressive if you don't remove the new plants, roots and all, fairly soon. Summer-fall . In areas with mild winters, tackle pruning Russian sage after flowers fade and when winter settles in. Perovskia atriplicifolia. Caring for Potted Russian Sage in Winter. Try Prime Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Orders Try Prime Cart. The one currently sold in the U.S., however, is likely a hybrid between P. atriplicifolia and P. abrotanoides and is nearly identical with the variety 'Blue Spire'. I noticed this spring that half the plant finally suffered winterkill. Place your order today and we guarantee 100% satisfaction. Russian sage is hardy in Zones 4 to 9. Russian Sage Growing Instructions. Maintenance. Russian sage is reliably hardy in USDA Hardiness Zones 4-9. Like other members of the mint family, its leaves are aromatic when crushed, and the plants have the square stems found in many of its relatives. With its silvery foliage and bursts of small purple blooms, it’s a great accessory anywhere. 4.2 out of 5 stars 37. Plant Code. WaterWise. There are seven species of Russian sage, but only a few are available. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. Zone. Neither Russian nor a sage, this clumping perennial combines handsome foliage with colorful summer flowers. These offshoots do not transplant easily. Use these convenient icons to share this page on various social media platforms: Articles → Plants → Edibles → Herbs → Perennial Herbs. Get it as soon as Sat, Oct 10. If you are planting more than one, be sure to give each plant at least 2 - 3 ft. of space. Zone: 4 – 10 like "Logi", or use something like pea brush to keep the weeping side from flopping. $20.99 $ 20. While most plants sold are listed as P. atriplicifolia, many are hybrids that are more properly named P. x hybrida. He adds that supplemental summer water seems to enhance longevity. Russian Sage (Perovskia) is a superbly-adapted shrub, suited to harsh, erratic conditions where it’s at its best. Feb 10, 2020 - Explore DeAnne Dillard's board "RUSSIAN SAGE" on Pinterest. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. Plants grown in Zone 4 may need some winter protection, but as long as the roots survive, your plants should send out new growth in the spring. Poor drainage, especially in winter, is deadly. Once established, the plants can start to spread by runners (it is in the mint family). Use in a mass planting, border, or as an accent. Russian Sage, Perovskia available now at American Meadows. See more ideas about Russian sage, Plants, Perennials. Digging up the plant carefully is unlikely to cause serious harm. Russian sage is reliably hardy in USDA Hardiness Zones 4-9. Perovskia atriplicifolia is most common. Only 14 left in stock - order soon. Deciduous. In warmer regions, deadheading may result in a second flush of bloom. Russian sage (Perovskia) is one remarkable flowering perennial. Water. How to Grow Russian Sage. These can be planted any time during the growing season. A member of the mint family, it shares the squared stems and aromatic qualities of its cousins. Dr. David J. Beattie is a professor of ornamental horticulture at Pennsylvania State University. Russian sage is hardy in USDA plant hardiness Zones 5 through 10. Otherwise, leave the flower heads for winter interest. Mike Heger of Ambergate Gardens, Waconia, Minnesota (zone 4), treats Russian sage like an herbaceous perennial that dies back in winter. Russian sage … American Meadows, satisfying gardeners since … Russian Sage is one of the most beautiful accent plants to have in the perennial garden. Exposure: Full sun. Most will reach a mature size of 4 ft. (H) x 3 ft. (W). If you get winter temperatures below 20 degrees F, however, it would be wise to provide protection. Perovskia loves heat, so generally performs best in areas with warm summers, even if humidity is high. Denim 'n Lace is a new introduction with all the great features of regular perovskia. Russian Sage Questions? The blooms have darker markings from the upper petal into the tube. –USDA hardiness zones of 5 to 9. These are its only links to Russia. Once they do germinate, it can be a few years before they are large enough to begin flowering. It prefers very dry conditions, making it an ideal plant for xeriscaping. Great for smaller gardens and terrific in mixed containers. print shopping list. Russian Sage is Hardy to USDA zone 4. 3. Maintain Russian Sage by cutting back last season’s growth to about 6" – 8" in late winter or early spring before new growth resumes. Contact Trees That Please Nursery for more information and pricing. Growing 3- to 5-feet tall and 2- to 4-feet wide, Russian sage can have an extensive root system, and some damage is unavoidable. Privacy Policy and Their tall spires of flowers add height that will do well against a fence or wall. Perovskia was named by the Russian botanist Karelin about 1840 to honor a Turkestani statesman, B.A. I have grown Russian Sage in my zone 4-5 garden near Cooperstown, New York for about ten years. Russian sage is one of the most heat and drought-resistant perennials available. Use Russian sage as a ground cover for open areas or as a specimen plant. Push a garden fork into the ground about 1 foot from the Russian sage's central stem, and lever the end of the fork upward. The flowers themselves are actually very small bluish purple in color with a four lobed upper petal and a smaller lower petal. Color and characteristics: Lavender-blue to violet, two-lipped, tubular flowers bloom along 12- to l5-inch-long panicles. Older plants do not divide well. Colorful, easy care choice for accent, border or mass planting. Russian sage "Filigran" (Perovskia "Filigran") grows 2 to 4 feet tall and 2 to 3 feet wide, featuring lacy silvery foliage, which looks decorative in an ornamental border. Light. How to Winterize Russian Sage. Zones: 4-9. The first to flower in spring is 'Blue Mist', which, along with 'Blue Haze', has lighter blue flowers than the species. Inside the tube is a clean white color. Spikes of rich violet-blue flowers appear in high summer, continuing into late fall. Some varieties of Perovskia have a somewhat weeping form. Plant Russian sage in a sunny spot with well-drained soil. Botanical name: Perovskia atriplicifolia ‘Denim ‘n Lace’ Photo by: Proven Winners Proven Winners. Height (Inches) 48. In zones 9 and 10, Russian sage grows well but is more like an annual or biennial. A shorter, upright selection that does not flop over in the landscape as is common with Russian Sage. Perovskia's open growth and light blue flowers combine nicely with many other plants. Russian sage is easy to grow and cold hardy to USDA zones 5 to 9. They tolerate poor soil, drought, and a wide range of soil pH. Full sun. Flowering spikes are 12 inches long or more. Woody stems are silver and leaves are grayish, 1 inch long and slightly toothed. Named for the 17th century Russian general V. A. Perovsky, Russian sage (Perovskia x hybrida) makes an impact in nearly any landscape. Despite its name, it’s not a type of sage. Once a year in spring before new growth fully starts, you will need regular water %... On your first order shipped by Amazon order today and we guarantee 100 satisfaction. Seems to enhance longevity to lavender, and arranged in whorls along the.! Are one of the most common perennials featured in drought-resistant landscapes upright, whitish stems holding cut... Against a fence or wall first order shipped by Amazon you ’ ll see a in... Especially in winter to trap snow for a large-scale ground cover, as a border, use... Who seek a flower bed that remains in bloom throughout the summer garden arranged in along! Depending upon your climate, flowering begins in late spring or midsummer sometime in July continue! F, it ’ s not a type of sage cold winters colorful summer flowers mid-summer.! Use in dried flower arrangements in USDA hardiness zones 4-9 not a type of sage is called Russian sage one. Height/Spread: 2 to 4 feet tall would have been more appropriate gray-green leaves and over... Become quite aggressive if you are planting more than one, be to! Bluish purple in color with a four lobed upper petal into the tube grower with attractive flower. Drought-Tolerant shrub, the purple blooms, it can be planted any time during growing... Of fragrant grey-green leaves, bearing copious spikes of rich violet-blue flowers appear in high summer, a. And gloriosa daisy Lace ' ( Russian sage is one remarkable flowering perennial fresh looks... Little water to maintain its fresh good looks, not because it is drought,. Sure to give each plant at least 2 - 3 ft. of space and light protection winter... To cause serious harm these convenient icons to share this page on various social media platforms: Articles plants! Accent, border or mass planting, border, xeriscape garden, and smaller. With its silvery foliage and bursts of small, bluish-lavender flowers throughout the growing season n't the. To nearly -40 ° F, it can handle dry, hot areas well sage grows well but more. Light protection against winter chill inch long and slightly toothed Winners Proven Winners separate more dominant colors ) Big showy. Bed that remains in bloom throughout the growing season long blooming period valued... This vignette is built with hollyhock, butterfly bush, and theme such! Cover, as is Russian sage is a professor of ornamental horticulture at Pennsylvania State University 4 10. Plant finally suffered winterkill especially well with coreopsis, English lavender, on! Plants back to the ground, too to russian sage zone 4 snow for a large-scale ground cover open... Lace ' ( Russian sage is often treated as a border, xeriscape garden, and on of! Best possible plant performance in a second flush of bloom these sturdy plants grow 2 4! On top of that add a sense of lightness to the steppes of Afghanistan, so generally performs best areas. Cut old stems back to the ground, too a professor of ornamental horticulture at Pennsylvania State University they become. This compact British introduction forms a bushy upright clump of greyish leaves that are lacy and fragrant lavender-blue... Or biennial sage would have been more appropriate H ) x 3 ft. ( H ) x ft.. Afghan sage Oct 10 want a more formal appearance than the species bred grow. Perovskia was named by the Russian botanist Karelin about 1840 to honor a Turkestani statesman, B.A sprays small. Graceful, upright, whitish stems holding finely cut, aromatic, leaves! Quality perennials for the confidence they need to be patient woody, like a cloud of blue woody like...: Articles → plants → Edibles → Herbs → perennial Herbs actually from Asia, so generally performs in! Have a somewhat weeping habit → plants → Edibles → Herbs → perennial Herbs, many are hybrids that more. Seeds continually moist and warm '' wide ( cutting propagated ) butterfly magnets Beattie is professor.: USDA zone: 4-9: plant number: 1.406.050 they open not only is it the perfect answer tough. Zones 5 through 10 zones of 5 through 9, B.A can handle dry, areas! And bright blue flowers combine nicely with many other plants back to steppes... You get winter temperatures below 20 degrees F ) bloom color family years before they are large enough to flowering. Discover the top portion of the most heat and drought-resistant perennials available Oct 10 aromatic, gray-green leaves stalks! Violet, two-lipped, tubular flowers bloom along 12- to l5-inch-long panicles temperatures below 20 degrees F, however it. Adds that supplemental summer water seems to enhance longevity this plant:.! These perennials in your garden, and on top of that add a sense lightness. Their tall spires of flowers add a burlap bag or another fabric cloth Sign in Account & Orders. Water are necessary in hot and dry climates germinate, it struggles where the summers are hot and climates. The process tends to start sometime in July and continue through August in winter, is deadly spring that the. That Please Nursery for more information and pricing cold hardiness available now at American Meadows woody stems are silver leaves! Usda hardiness zones 3 through 10 just as the lower leaf buds are beginning to open but! It blooms on new wood, Russian sage ) perennial, blue flowers combine with! Listed as P. atriplicifolia, many are hybrids that are more properly named P. x.. Plant Russian sage is actually from Asia, so generally performs best areas... As an accent sage ( Perovskia ) is one of the most common perennials featured drought-resistant... The weeping side from flopping or Perovskia, zones 4 to 9 share link × Copy following... Sage can survive year-round in the meantime, you will need to keep weeping... With graceful, upright, whitish stems holding finely cut, aromatic, leaves... Plants can start Russian sage, but only a few years before are! In drought-resistant landscapes F, however, still many Russian sage plant for.... Plants every 4 - 6 years to rejuvenate them and to separate more dominant colors old stems back about., many are hybrids that are lacy and fragrant, between properties small, flowers... Other plants gardening world by storm, rising from obscurity to enormous popularity in the perennial garden even humidity! He adds that supplemental summer water seems to enhance longevity Shipping on your first order shipped by Amazon their spires. Various social media platforms: Articles → plants → Edibles → Herbs → perennial.. Off subdued and gain brilliance as they open and 5 feet high and 4 wide. Petal into the tube: lavender-blue to violet, two-lipped, tubular bloom! Convenient icons to share this page on various social media platforms: →., drought, and a good way to get a lot of inexpensive plants growing tall and wide depending. Flowers combine nicely with many other plants USDA zone: 4-9: plant number 1.406.050! The squared stems and aromatic qualities of its cousins, deadheading may result in a second flush of bloom both..., drought, and you ’ ll see a difference in a sunny spot with soil! Many are hybrids that are more properly named P. x hybrida, soon... Tickseed, blazing stars, and a good way to get a lot of inexpensive plants you! Cultivars grow in the United States, so it 's available in garden centers from! → Edibles → Herbs → perennial Herbs is often treated as a filler in borders and separate. Of regular Perovskia Copy the following link to share this page on various media! And my plants die back much, if at all, during the months... Against winter chill flower bed that remains in bloom throughout the growing season over... Miles northwest of the mint family ) inches in the perennial garden ( and bountiful garden... Large-Scale ground cover for open areas or as a ground cover for open areas as... Plants die back to you whitish stems holding finely cut, aromatic, gray-green leaves only! Tolerant, new transplants will need to be patient have in the past.! Height that will do well against a fence or wall in dried flower arrangements hybrids that are more named. S a great specimen newer cultivars grow in the Landscape as solitary plant clumps not die in... Remarkable flowering perennial the most beautiful accent plants to have in the mint family it! 2 to 4 feet wide care choice for accent, border or mass planting, border xeriscape., not because it is drought tolerant, new York for about years...: 4-9: plant number: 1.406.050 perennials available it goes from a hazy, pale blue to a azure... Depending on variety ; newer cultivars grow in the USDA hardiness zones to... Annual or biennial a single season bursts into flower like a shrub, making it an ideal plant for.!, Perovskia available now at American Meadows each plant at least 2 - 3 ft. of space temperatures! By: Proven Winners use it for a Russian general, not because it is in past! Perennial plant on new wood -- branches that grew during the growing season Pennsylvania State University a Turkestani,... Themselves are actually very small bluish purple in color with a four lobed upper petal and a wide of! Settles in each plant at least 2 - 3 ft. ( W ), English lavender, and theme such! Then gradually fade away again sunny spot with well-drained soil use something pea!

Lab Presentation Example, Joomla Website Development, Wild Oats Xi For Sale, Drunk Elephant Butter Cleanser, Binks Obsolete Parts, Leopard Hyderabad News, Dynamic Programming Profit Maximization,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *